Download and print two copies of the outline map of South America. On one map locate the following countries (and features) by outlining the boundaries and printing the name of the nation within its boundaries in large letters. Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Columbia Ecuador Paraguay Peru Amazon River Andes Mountains On separate pages, briefly describe the zones, environmental and cultural, listed below. On a second copy of the outline map, sketch and label all of these features. Make it clear from your combined narrative description and sketch where each area(s) is located, what it is like, and why it is important to us in this class (for example, what kinds of resources are available there for human exploitation). You may find that using colored pencils or at least different kinds of shadings will make it easier to represent the approximate area of each region. (20 points) Central Andean culture area Coastal Valleys Coastal desert and Yunga Highland Valleys or Quechua Suni Cordilleras Tropical Forest or Selva Montaña or Selva Alta Ceja de la Montaña Puna
Fig 1: outline map of South America.
Figure 2: Central Andean culture, Coastal Valleys, Coastal desert and Yunga Highland Valleys
From the outline map presented in figure 1, the Central America cultural area lies to the North. To the West are the Pacific Ocean and Tierra del Fuego to the South. Lastly, to the South lies the Southern lowlands culture areas to the East of the Andes Mountains and Amazon. The map covers the present day countries such as Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, and Columbia.
In figure 2, the fundamental contrasts are the lowlands (coast) and Highlands (Andes Mountains). Environmental conditions vary both vertically and horizontally, and there are also many micro zones. Highland zones vary vertically by altitude and coastal plains zones vary away from the coast horizontally (WKU, 2015).
There are also some positive features in these areas that are important for the class studies. To begin, there are the presence of rich marine sources such as shellfish, fish, birds, reptiles and mammals, except for the areas where El Nino usually flows disrupting marine organisms. Secondly, the numerous river systems on the coast and the highlands are important for irrigation and transportation. Thirdly, there is fertile soil for agriculture, particularly on the coast. This is important for supporting large population densities and agriculture (WKU, 2015). Lastly, these areas are important for the class work learning because the areas have abundant natural resources including salt, building stone, clay and metal ores. These are important for trade networks and craft industries
On the negative side of the features, only 10% of the land is arable and can be utilized for plantation. This has resulted in land conflicts and the need for bringing the uneven land surfaces using new technologies into production. Furthermore, on the coast there are desert conditions except at Lomas. Moreover, high altitude in most areas being above 9000 feet has resulted in biological stresses that are associated with the high altitude such as wind stress, cold stress, and hypoxia among others. Lastly, environmental restrictions is also a problem because of valleys and mountain peaks. These have affected communication and transportation modes (WKU, 2015).