Early Pentecostal Pneumatology


Many people fail to understand who the Holy Spirit is. When Jesus rose from the dead, he promised his followers that He will not leave them as orphans but he will bring a helper that will be with them forever. Jesus was referring to the Holy Spirit in John 14:16 (Every Student, 2018). The Holy Spirit represents God. Whoever Believes in God would be filled with the Holy Spirit and Portray Gods character in his life. Oort (2011) refers the Holy Spirit as God’s given gift and also as a God’s being mode. It is a gift to the church from God the Father through His son Jesus Christ (Oort, 2011).
The Holy Spirit is further considered as the third member of Gods head, when referring to Gods the Father, Gods the son and God the Holy Spirit. In Christians lives, the Holy Spirit represents God in many ways. He tells the truth of Jesus and act as a teacher for Christians, as we can see in John 14:26 Jesus tells His disciples, “But the counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you”. He reveals Gods will in Christians lives and show people the right path to righteousness (Every Student, 2018). Not only do the wholly spirit dwell in the Christ’s believers but also the non believers. It reminds people about Gods truth and Mercy and that He can forgive sins and make them new.
The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit
There are individuals who do not believe in empty words, empty promises of the Holy Spirit. God illustrate the work of the Holy Spirit using symbols. This enhances the understanding of the doctrine as opposed to using empty words. The symbols are;
• Fire- it is compared to fire because the holy spirit is bold, it spreads and purifies like fire, Isaiah 4:4
• Wind-this symbolizes the mysterious work of the holy spirit, john 3:8
• Water – from the scriptures in John 7:38, “whoever believes in me as the scriptures has said, streams of the living water will flow from within him.” The fountain of the living water is compared to the Holy Spirit because of its purity, water restores cleanliness.
• A seal- a seal is a symbol of belonging, once the Holy Spirit dwells in a person you are Gods property Eph 1:13
• Oil – oil is compared to the Holy Spirit because it lubricates heals and soothes the skin. This is the most common used symbol of the Holy Spirit Even in today’s church.
• The Dove – a dove is pure, lovely innocent and patient. These character traits best describes the Holy Spirit Gen 1:2.

The Holy Spirit has been present from the early days of the Old Testament. God gave to Adam the gift of the Holy Spirit before it was withdrawn from him after he sinned (McMahon, 2011). The role of the Holy Spirit throughout the time has been to portray the glory of God. It worked in different ways, but most of all it manifested itself through the people who believed in God and passed message to the non believers or to strengthen the believers faith. The prophets from the Old Testament greatly depended on the Holy Spirit to fulfill their duties and to poses the wisdom in writing the scriptures (McMahon, 2011). According to Pearlman the Holy Spirit has several titles and one of them is the Spirit of truth. To understand Jesus Christ more we need the Holy Spirit to interpret to us through the prophets such as Elijah from the Old Testament (Pearlman, 1937). Other prophets such as Hosea, Isaiah, Joel, Ezekiel, among others were being controlled by the divine power of the Holy Spirit and demonstrated supernatural ways of doing their work (McMahon, 2011).
The Holy Spirit can also be characterized by the breath. In genesis 2:7, when Adam was created he was given the breath of life and he became a living being. This shows that it is the Holy Spirit that sustains a man whether he serves God or not (Pearlman, 1937). This characteristic of the Holy Spirit is categorized as the Creative Spirit in the Old Testament (Pearlman, 1937). Another category is the Dynamic spirit. This is when the Holy Spirit manifest through the speakers of God and who receive messages from God to the people. The third category is the regenerative spirit, this means that in the Old Testament the Holy spirits work was recorded and his presence felt but it was not emphasized. The Holy Spirit was being viewed as a preparation for the coming of the Messiah.
The work of the Holy Spirit was vividly seen through Jesus Christ whose coming was foreseen and announced by John the Baptist (McMahon 2011, Pearlman 1937). Jesus was always associated with the Holy Spirit throughout his life on earth; from his birth, to his baptism, his ministry, crucifixion, resurrection and his ascension. Through the sprit, Jesus was omnipresent (Pearlman, 1937).
The Holy Spirit as a Person
According to Walvoord (2008), the Holy Spirit is a person because it is one of the three Godhead members. The first one, The Father is a person, the Second one the son is a person so definitely the Holy Spirit as the third member is a person. He goes ahead and explains that the Holy Spirit is a person through the attributes of intelligence, knowledge and its normal functions. The Holy Spirit fulfills Gods will through people and according to Torey (2005), whether there is a body or not, any being that feels and wills is a person. The Holy Spirit is considered knowledgeable because it knows about God and passes that information to man. In Romans 8:2, it confirms that the Spirit has life according to human level, life and personality work together; personality cannot exist without the possession of life (Walvoord, 2008).
The personality of the Holy Spirit can also be affirmed by its doing. We have learned earlier that the Holy Spirit is a teacher, gives guidance makes people aware of the sin. All these work can only be connected to a personality. These doings of the Holy Spirit are supported by the scripture. When we look at John 16:13; it talks about the guidance of the Holy Spirit (Walvoord, 2008). In 1 Cor 12:11, it explains that it is the Gods will through the Holy Spirit that is done in our lives. This means that the Holy Spirit uses us according to his will, also proves that only a person can take ownership of a property , we Gods property through the holy spirit.
The apostolic epistles acknowledge the person in the Holy Spirit as seen in Romans 8:11. They do refer to him as the spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead. Apostle John also refers to the spirit as “the spirit of truth, the one who abides in us” (McMahon, 2011). In Romans 8:27 shows that the Holy Spirit has a mind, so it thoughtful, full of ideas and intelligent (Torrey, 2005). Walvoord (2008), points out that another assurance that the Holy Spirit is a person is seen in the use of personal pronouns in the scripture such as him.
The Holy Spirit and the Pentecostal Theology
Clerk (2000) explains that during the 19th century the believers did not have a theological understanding of the scriptures, they interpreted it according to their own explanations by asking the Lord to fill them with the Holy Spirit. They related their experiences in Christianity and the scriptures. Their theology was more of spirit led. In their experiences of speaking in tongues, the occurrences in the Bethel Bible institute, was linked to the scriptures. This was a Pentecostal revival (Clerk, 2000). There connection between the scriptures and their experiences also manifested when they could pray for the sick by faith and received healing. These actions strengthened their faith and increased their zeal to seek the Lord tirelessly in prayers.
From Clifton (2017) analysis of the biblical theology, he describes it as a task that that involves translation of the scriptures according to Christian tradition to provide common understanding among the Pentecostals when communicating the bible message. He goes ahead and suggests that the Pentecostals should seek other methods of doing theology from different traditions in order to reach a wider population. However the Pentecostals hold their believe that human knowing is not deliberate but is guided by the Holy Spirit through worship that transform a believers emotional desire (Clifton, 2017).
The Pentecostals understood the scripture by the help of the Holy Spirit. Clifton (2017) article identifies this as pnematology theology. This study of the Holy Spirit can be clearly without contradiction be associated with the Pentecostal movement because they relied heavily on the Holy Spirit to have its way in their lives. Understanding the Holy Spirit empowers people and breaks any present barrier such as culture and gender and gives us the ability to speak and listen in tongue. The Holy Spirit also helps people to understand the work of the Lord and that its presence signifies the presence of the Lord and understands that the work of the Holy Spirit is different from the work of man (Clifton, 2017).
Apart from the experiences they had as a result of being filled by the Holy Spirit, their main goal was to take the gospel to every part of the world before the end comes (Clerk, 2000). The Pentecostal movement challenged the traditional Christian church believes and culture, this resulted in rejection from all the denominations hence it largely grew up in isolation. In the following years however the, the Pentecostals embraced the study of the principles and methods of interpreting the bible and also interacted with the Christian groups.
They borrowed their methods of study from evangelical Christianity because as Pentecostals they did not initially concentrate with theology. During the early years of assimilating into theology, the Pentecostals did not have a systematic theological structure. They relied on the Christian groups for provision of materials for bible school students and pastors. It is currently evident that the Pentecostal movement has largely grown numerically. However the struggle in the theological stability is putting more stress on the Pentecostal churches (Clerk, 2000).
The Split of the Early Church
The first split of the early church happened during the 18th century. The reason behind it was the political and corrupt nature among the members. The Pentecostal church underwent reforms and as a result the movement spread all over the world. The Pentecostal movement has a variety of denominations and independent churches all over (Rowland, 2018). In the 20th century after World War II, there was a religious movement that believed in baptism with the Holy Spirit. The movement was known as Pentecostalism which gave rise to several protestant churches. The establishment of these churches continued spreading to a number of countries globally during the 20th century (Melton, 2014). Speaking in unknown language also known as Glossalalia was believed by the Pentecostals to be a gift of the Holy Spirit after baptism. They believed to receive supernatural abilities such as being able to prophesy and power to heal (Kay, 2013). During the early years of Pentecostalism the people who believed in baptism of the Holy Spirit were being viewed as psychopath and they were being studied to how possible this was.
The doctrine of baptism led to a second major fallout of the Pentecostal church from 1901 to 1916. They disagreed on the formula to be used during Baptism, some were for the in the name of “Jesus Christ formula” while others were for the Trinitarian way. This led to a formation of a group of churches known as ‘Jesus Name’ (World Council of Churches, 2018).
The doctrine of the Holy Spirit gives a clear description of who the Holy Spirit is and how his effect to the church. The Holy Spirit has been Present from the beginning because he represents God and God is the beginning. During the Old Testament as we have seen in the research, the Holy Spirit was present and functional but his doings were not emphasized. A clear indication of the work of the Holy Spirit is seen in the New Testament through Jesus Christ and His ministry. The Holy Spirit will continue to live amongst us because he was sent by Jesus to be our helper and comforter.

Clark, Matthew. “Frontiers in Theology: Issues at the Close of the First Pentecostal Century” Australasian Pentecostal Studies [Online], Number — (1 March 2000)
Clifton, Shane. “Editorial: Identity and the Shape of Pentecostal Theology” Australasian Pentecostal Studies[Online], Volume 19(15 June 2017)
Every Student. 2018. “Who Is The Holy Spirit?”. Everystudent.Com. https://www.everystudent.com/forum/hspirit.html.
Kay, William K. “3. The Dynamics of the Growth of Pentecostal Churches: Evidence from Key Asian Centres” Australasian Pentecostal Studies [Online], Number — (31 January 2013)
McMahaon, Matthew. 2011. “A Summary Of The Doctrine Of The Holy Spirit – By Dr. C. Matthew Mcmahon | A Puritan’s Mind”. Apuritansmind.Com. http://www.apuritansmind.com/the-christian-walk/a-summary-of-the-doctrine-of-the-holy-spirit-by-dr-c-matthew-mcmahon/.
Melton, J.Gordon. “Pentecostalism”. Encyclopedia Britannica. Last modified 2014. Accessed May 14, 2018. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Pentecostalism.
Pearlman, Myer. 1937. Knowing The Doctrines Of The Bible. Springfield, MO: Gospel Pub. House.
Rowland, Margaret. 2018. “The Early Church”. United Church Of Christ. http://www.ucc.org/about-us_short-course_the-early-church.
Torrey, R. A. 2005. “The Personality Of The Holy Spirit”. Wholesomewords.Org. https://www.wholesomewords.org/etexts/torrey/hspirit.pdf.
Van Oort, Johannes. 2011. “The Holy Spirit And The Early Church: Doctrine &Amp; Confession”. Scielo.Org.Za. http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0259-94222011000300020.
Walvoord, John. 2008. “1. The Person Of The Holy Spirit”. Bible.Org. https://bible.org/seriespage/1-person-holy-spirit.
World Council of Churches. 2018. “Pentecostal Churches — World Council Of Churches”. Oikoumene.Org. https://www.oikoumene.org/en/church-families/pentecostal-churches.

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Critically Reflect on Forms of Relationship in The Therapeutic Encounter and The Challenges of Identifying and Working with These Relationship Processes


The relationship between the client and the counsellor is an elusive and mystical sometimes, debated frequently and is always a psychotherapy enterprise aspect that is interesting. Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) indicated that the global definition of relationship as all the behaviours, attitudes and feelings, conscious and unconscious that occur between two people, where one between them is a help-giver who has been sanctioned professionally, and the other is a patient or a client. However, given that the definition is broad, Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) proposed a narrower definition of relationship as the attitudes and feelings that counselling participants have toward each other and the manner in which these get expressed. In this narrower definition, the procedures and techniques applied by the therapist that are wedded to the theory from which he or she is operating may reflect the issues of relationship, but do not provide relationship definition. There exists six forms or modalities of relationship in a therapeutic setting, and they include; (1) working alliance, (2) transference-countertransference, (3) reparative/ developmentally deeded, (4) person-person, and (5) transpersonal modalities (Clarkson, 2014, p.113). In this essay, I am going to discuss the forms of relationship in the therapeutic encounter and the challenges of identifying and working with these relationship processes. Lastly, I will reflect on how I have experienced two of these forms/modalities in therapy drawn on my own experiences in illuminating these issues.

According to Clarkson (2014, pp. 8), all the six modes interlink and overlap.  Working alliance is the part of the therapist/client relationship enabling the therapist and the client to work together even when any of them do not wish to work together. The aspects of working alliance include the bond, goals, tasks, the ability of the client to form relationships, and significant early work stages. In transference-countertransference relationship, modality is the experience of working alliance distortion by the experiences, fears and wishes from the past carried over into the therapeutic relationship. This is also known as the therapist/client bias (Culley & Bond, 2011, p. 22).

On the other hand, reparative/ developmentally deeded relationship modality is the intentional provision by the therapist for replenishing, reparative or corrective relationship or action where the previous experiences or original parenting was overprotective or abusive or deficient. This relationship modality sometimes is known as a maturational response or corrective emotional experience (Clarkson, 2014, p. 13). This modality focuses on re-instating the healthy development process or repairing previous damage. This implies that the relationship aspects that were traumatic or have been absent for client at his childhood parts are repaired or supplied by the therapist. In essence, emphatic reflection’s person-centred responses are reparative.

In person-person (real) relationship modality is the core relationship or dialogic relationship that concerns the authentic humanness shared by the therapist and the client. This modality has also been referred to as the real therapeutic relationship dimension (Clarkson, 2014, p. 16). It is here and now an existential meeting between two individuals and requires mutual recognition and participation that each gets changed by the other. The real person of the therapist cannot be entirely being excluded from interactional therapy matrix. Moreover, this relationship modality does not involve changing the therapeutic relationship into a social relationship or trying to seek personal gratification by dialoguing with the client. However, it includes confirmation of client as deserving respect. Psychoanalysis recognises real relationship as significant deeply and potentially profound force of healing (Gilbert & Orlans, 2011, p.56).

Transpersonal relationship modality according to Clarkson (2014, p. 20) is the timeless psychotherapeutic relationship facet, that is impossible to describe but refers to the mysterious, spiritual or currently inexplicable dimension of the healing relationship. This relationship modality also acknowledges the influence of the qualities that presently transcend the limits of humans understanding. It is difficult to express it as its rare and is also not accessible easily to the descriptions that are used in discussing other relationship forms. Clarkson (2014, p. 22) also indicated that it lets go of skills, experience, knowledge, the desire to health, preconceptions to be present. It also allows receptiveness and passivity, hard to prepare and cannot be made to happen. It can only prepare conditions that are conducive to the spiritual activity. This relationship modality is also characterized by intuition to know facts, intent and feeling of the client without evidence to come to these conclusions. This relationship modality also flourishes more when the therapist dissolves their ego and allows insight and wisdom to emerge (Wallin, 2015, p.33).


1)    The Working Alliance

Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) suggested that working alliance is the alignment that takes place between the client and the counsellor, and more precisely, between the counsellor’s therapizing or working side and the client’s reasonable side (the reasonable or the observing ego). It is helpful at this point to think of two disparate ingredients or qualities of personality. One of these allows for objectivity and reason in observing situations and more so on the individuals. The second is the one which does not observe but instead experiences and feels unreflectively. This is referred to as a split in the ego by the psychoanalysts, and for expressive therapy or for successful analysis to occur, the client must have the ability for oscillating between these two sides. He or she must have the ability of rationally experiencing the feelings and observing those feelings.

In the working alliance, the reasonable side of the client aligns with the working side of the counsellor (which is also his or her reasonable side). This allows the client to experience negative feelings towards the counsellor without work disruption. Therefore, the reasonable side of the client, which gets aligned with the counsellor, permits the client to look at these negative feelings and try grasping their source. Also, it is the working alliance, and more importantly, that creates the sense that the counselling relationship participants are joined together in a shared enterprise, with each contributing to the work (Gelso & Carter, 1985, p. 155-194).

Bordin (1975, p. 252-260) conceptualized the working alliances as comprising of three parts: emotional bond existing between the participants, agreement on the task of the work, and an agreement about the goals. Therefore, there exists a positive attachment between the participants and an explicit or implicit view that the explicitly or implicitly desired goas of the work are very much appropriate for both the client and the counsellor. Moreover, again either explicitly or implicitly, the participants agree on what extra and in-therapy behaviour (tasks) will be helpful in achieving the goals agreed upon.

Extending the Bordin’s formulation, Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) suggests that the working alliance is an emotional alliance that is both fed and fostered by the emotional bond, agreement on tasks and agreement on goals. This contrasts the definition Bordin proposed for the alliance as agreements and bonds. Despite the disagreement on the definition, Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) shared the hypothesis by Bordin that the working alliance strength is a primary contributor to the helping relationship’s outcome.

The side of the counsellor in the relationship, it is suggested that the professional compassion and concern and the abiding willingness of helping the client in facing his or her problems, contribute to the alliance between the participants. The well-understood client-centred conditions of respect, genuineness and empathy are possibly central in developing the alliance, and it may be that these conditions do have their key effect through the alliance they establish.  Just like the working alliance necessitates the client to be making use of his or her observing, reasonable side, the therapist, also must utilize this part of herself or himself in facilitating a sound alliance. In most instances, therapists experience very strong reactions towards their clients. In these instances, the job of the therapists is to understand these feelings, and then make appropriate responses to the client with the aim of fostering an understanding and change of behaviour. Therefore, there must be constancy and consistency in the stance of the counsellor toward the client. The relationship is for the client’s therapeutic benefit, and the observing side of the counsellor is dominant in getting to understand his or her feelings, and disallowing these feelings to be used in ways that are antitherapeutic.

From the side of the client, he or she needs to be having some trust capacity for the healthy bonding to take place. Relatedly, it also follows that the client must have the ability to form attachments to people, to invest caring and energy in relationships. Moreover, probably the client needs to be having a similar worldview to the theoretical stance of the therapist that the task and goals of the counselling make sense to him or her. For all people, probably, their worldviews would be incompatible simply with the operations of particular counselling forms. This aspect addresses an issue of fit more than just the factor of the client. If the client cannot appreciate or understand what is to be offered by the therapist, one cannot expect working alliance that is sound to develop (Gelso & Carter, 1985, p. 155-194).


2)    The Real Relationship

Historically, the notion of real relationship has been rooted in humanistic conceptions of therapy and counselling. Additionally, the increasing emphasis in the therapies of learning on issues of relationship appears, in part, to be representing a focus on the real relationship. It appears that the humanistic therapies tend to equate the real relationship with the therapist’s authenticity, genuineness, opened and congruence. A real relationship, in effect, exists to the extent that the therapist is able and willing to be genuine and open about her or his feelings in the relationship. This seems to be particularly clear from recent presentations of what is today known as a person-centred approach (Gilbert & Orlans, 2011, p.36). Also, it seems true of the gestalt therapy which is considered essentially humanistic though to a lesser extent as elaborated by Simkin and Yontef (1984, pp. 279-319). The approaches to learning, to the degree, that they are describing these phenomena, seems to be equating a real relationship with the openness of the counsellor, despite the fact that they do not view the real relationship as vital to positive outcomes almost to the extent that is done by the humanistic approaches.

Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) suggested that equating the genuineness and openness of the counsellor with a real relationship is misleading and incomplete for two reasons. First, by doing so it leaves out the client from the equation, or it gives the client a minor role. The impression that will be gotten by an individual from the humanistic literature, for instance, is that the therapist is offering a set of behaviours prescribed, such as the behaviours that reflect openness, and this facilitates the movement of the client in certain directions, including increased openness. On the other hand, real relationship implies at least a two-party interchange, whereby each is involved with the others in a developing a process. A real relationship according to Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) is something that develops and exists between a client and the counsellor as a result of the actions, attitudes, perceptions and feelings of each towards and with the other.

It may well appear that the major focus is on the counsellor, and that essentially the contribution of the client to the real relationship has been ignored partly, at least because of the role expectations of the counsellor are in a way contradictory and confusing, whereas the role expectations of the client are clearer. Therefore, it is an expectation from the client to try to be genuine and open at all times, despite the fact that at times it is not expected of them to succeed. On the other hand, the expectation to the counsellor is to be genuine and open and at the same time be working. By working means observing an individual’s communications and behaviours, and keeping them under some form of rational control. In many ways, this appears to be contradicting the dictates that state that the counsellor should be genuine and open. Such kind of contradictory expectations are evident and can see, for instance, in the prescription for experiential therapy by Mahrer (1983, p.45). These complexities, in effect, have created the need for more discussion of the contribution of the counsellor to the real relationship than the contribution of the client. Be it like that, the inattention of the contribution of the client and to the reciprocal influence of the counsellor and the client in fostering real relationship here is seen as a serious deficit.

There exists a second and perhaps even more serious problem in the tendency of equating a real relationship with the genuineness and openness of the counsellor. Greenson (1971, pp. 213-232) underscored that a real relationship comprises of the realistic and genuine reactions and perceptions of the participants to each other. Realistic reactions and perceptions are reality oriented, undistorted and appropriate. They have not been contaminated by the distortions of the transference. On the other hand, genuine reactions and perceptions reflect truthfulness, authenticity and honesty, as opposed to synthenticness and artificiality. While the component of transference of the relationship is genuine, by definition, it is never genuine.  In other words, when enacting transference and when involved in, honestly the client does experience these feelings., and in most instanced they are intensely experienced. However, they are the therapist’s distortions, misperceptions based on relationships and experiences from another place and time. A differentiation between interpretations and attributions on the one hand, and on the other and are the feeling reactions may help in clarifying how a person may be genuine within the unreal relationship. This implies that any interaction may be seen as comprising of four steps that are sequential. That is, (1) an individual perceives a behaviour (2) an individual makes interpretations or attributions about that behaviour (3) one reacts internally, that is having feelings about the behaviour (4) an individual emits some response.

In their article, Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) proposed a position that the real relationship exists in all therapies, and it does so intermingled and also alongside the transference or unreal relationship. Gelso & Carter (1985, p. 155-194) indicated that in a real relationship, an individual’s interpretations and perceptions of another’s behaviour are realistic and appropriate, the behaviour is congruent and the feelings are genuine. The real relationship may possess two parts, that is the nonintimate or impersonal, and more personal and intimate. Both of these parts are significant and should be attended to and appropriately used. The more non-intimate real relationship part would entail chatty interactions, which may paradoxically convey a very human form of respect. On the other hand, the more intimate interactions entail feelingful and personalized messages. Therefore, the real relationship has a significant effect on the outcome and processes of every form of counselling (Culley & Bond, 2011, p.25).

3) Developmentally needed/reparative relationship.

This is the intentional provision by the corrective/reparative psychotherapist or parental relationship replenishing where the original parenting was deficient, overprotective or abusive. This relationship mode refers to the relationship aspects which may have been traumatic or absent for the client at certain periods of his or her childhood and which the psychotherapist repairs or supplies, normally in a contracted form during the psychotherapy. That is on request from the patient with an agreement. Ferenczi Sandor, one of the early followers of Freud attempted this by departing from impassivity and neutrality in favour of offering nursing care, management of regression or friendly hugs to very sick patients, day or night, including those he saw anytime as well as taking them on holidays. According to Ferenczi, thee needed to be a contrast between original infancy trauma and the analytical situation so that it can be facilitative in remembering rather than patient’s renewed trauma remembering (Gilbert & Orlans, 2011, p.62).

A reflection on how I have experienced two of these forms/modalities in therapy

In this section, I am going to offer a reflection on how I have experienced two of these modalities of relationship in therapy. Specifically, I will focus on working alliance and Reparative / Developmentally Needed modality.

To begin, during my therapy session, I often had a rupture with my therapist who was always showing up late for our appointments. Based on the working alliance modal, we were able to establish a relationship and work together. We were able to apply the principles of working alliance mode to repair the rupture and regain the trust again. In working alliance, the first stage is all about building a shared foundation and an understanding. Therefore, if the relation falters on the first stage, both parties can go back to the contract and repair the therapeutic alliance (Wallin, 2015, p. 49). The working alliance is the basis of the therapist-client relationship that enables both the therapist and the client to work together and would include things like presenting issues. Therefore, we were able to sit down with my therapist, discuss the lateness to appointment issue and came to an agreement that she will always try to send an apology if she will be late or engaged somewhere.

One of the problems why I had therapy sessions for counselling the trauma that I had when I was a child. When I was a child, my mother was an alcoholic, and this was traumatic for me when I was growing up. Attachment theory according to Fonagy (2018, p.1) is all about the nature of children’s early experiences and the impact of the experiences on the characteristics of later functioning of specific relevance to disorder of personality. The theory address how deprivation, particularly early trauma, will come to affect a person’s propensity to personality disorder. Moreover, it also concerns with how these adverse consequences can be avoided. The key assumption in this theory is that the social behavior of an individual may be understood in terms of social relationships generic mental models constructed by an individual (Fonagy, 2018, p.1).

Based on the Reparative / Developmentally Needed modality, we were able to see improvement in my counselling sessions. As a client to my therapist, I came to see her as the better alternative at some level, I emotionally took on my therapist as a parent figure to support me in my personal growth which takes place when I am with her during her sessions. Given that my mother was an alcoholic during my childhood and was traumatic for me, my therapist asked me to imagine that my daughter was experiencing what I did as a teenager. Would I have more compassion and understanding for myself when I could mentalize that trauma happening to my daughter?  With those thoughts and mentalizing my daughter growing up with an alcoholic parent, I began having compassion and trusting my judgement. I also began using the therapist as emotional support, and this helped in relieving off the emotional burden that I have been carrying since childhood.



In conclusion, the paper Critically reflected on forms of relationship in the therapeutic encounter and the challenges of identifying and working with these relationship processes. It also drew on my own experiences in illuminating these issues. Going forward, I will work with the three relationship modalities; Working Alliance, Real Relationship (Humanistic person-centred) and Developmentally needed/reparative perspectives in various ways. I will apply working alliance modality by aligning the reasonable side of the client with my working side as a therapist. This will create the sense for us (client and therapist) in the counselling relationship get joined together in a shared enterprise with each of us contributing to the work. I will also apply Developmentally needed/reparative perspectives modality on clients which had overprotective, abusive or deficient original parenting to replenish relationship. Lastly, will use Real Relationship modality in creating some genuineness and opened with my clients. 


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Clarkson, P. (2014). The therapeutic relationship. London: Whurr.

Culley, S., & Bond, T. (2011). Integrative counselling skills in action. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Fonagy, P. (2018). PSYCHOMEDIA – Peter Fonagy, ‘Attachment, the development of the self, and its pathology in personality disorders’. Psychomedia.it. Retrieved 26 February 2018, from http://www.psychomedia.it/pm/modther/probpsiter/fonagy-2.htm

Gelso, C. J., & Carter, J. A. (April 01, 1985). The Relationship in Counseling and Psychotherapy: Components, Consequences, and Theoretical Antecedents. Counseling Psychologist, 13, 2, 155-94.

Gilbert, M., & Orlans, V. (2011). Integrative therapy: 100 key points & techniques. Hove, East Sussex: Routledge.

Greenson, R.R (1971). The “real” relationship between the patient and the psychoanalyst. In M. Kanzer (Ed.), The unconscious today: essays in honor of Max Schur (pp. 213-232). New York: International Universities Press

Mahrer, A.R (1983). Experiential psychotherapy: Basic Practices. New York: Brunner/Mazel

Simkin, J. S., & Yontef, G.M (1984) Gestalt therapy. In R.J Corsini (Ed), Current psychotherapies (3rd Ed.,pp. 279-319). Itasca, IL: Peacock

Wallin, D. J. (2015). Attachment in psychotherapy.

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Possible Selves Psychology

Self-concept is an individual’s theory about oneself. That is the person an individual was in the past, is current, and can possibly be in the future including group memberships and social roles (Dunkel & Kerpelman, 2006). Self concept that is well functioning helps an individual to make sense of the present, assists in positive self feelings preservations, predict the future, and also helps in motivation guidance. According to Dunkel & Kerpelman (2006), the future oriented contents of self concept component have been named possible selves. Dunkel & Kerpelman (2006) explained that possible selves are what an individual believes he/she might become in a more distal or near future, and therefore significant in motivation and goal setting.

King  & Kitchener (1994) pointed out that reflective judgment theories describes reasoning development from adolescents to adulthood. It describes epistemic assumptions changes, and how they affect the development of reflective and critical thinking skills, and other related constructs in adults and young adults, particularly college students. Reflective judgment theory is characterized by seven developmentally related but distinct sets of assumptions about the knowing process, and how it is acquired.  The seven stages are broadly summarized into three levels;

  1. Pre-reflective reasoning– the belief that knowledge is gotten from a figure in authority, or through firsthand observation. The people holding these assumptions have a belief that whatever they know is totally correct. It is from stage one to three
  2. Quasi-reflective reasoning– these people recognizes that knowledge contains uncertainty elements, which they attribute to some information missing, or to the methods of getting the evidence. It is from stage four to five
  3. Reflective reasoning– the people holding these assumptions accept that knowledge cannot have certainty. However, they are bound by it and make judgment which they are certain relatively ad most reasonable based on their available data evaluation. It is from stages six to seven (King & Kitchener, 1994).

Application of the theories in encouraging a student who dismisses the value of education

As Dunkel & Kerpelman (2006) asserted, possible selves’ theory focuses on the future and allows for malleability, self improvement and personal growth. Because possible selves according to Dunkel & Kerpelman (2006) provide both positive images of an individual’s self attaining of the future goals and the negative images of an individual self failing to realize the goals. The student can be encouraged to focus on the future, because through possible selves he will improve his well being and be optimistic about the future. The student may be dismissing the education value now, an indication that may be things are not going well at current, but a promise of change is suggested by possible self. Through possible self, the student can improve his ability to self regulate and to self control because it will help him focus on his future goals and reduce the distractions that influence him to dismiss education value at now. The student should also adopt school focused possible selves to have success in his academic attainment including his immediate ones such as passing his end term exams.

Certainly the student may be at the pre-reflective thinking stage of the reflective judgment model. The student may be pessimistic about education simply because he has not focused on what to be in future, or he has not analyzed the available evidence of the value of education. Therefore, the student should focus and think reflectively. He should seek knowledge from different sources, evaluate the evidence available across broad contexts and also seek the opinion of reputable people. Lastly, the student should compare his beliefs and compare the available evidence and opinions across different contexts and he will change his perception of the value of education (King & Kitchener, 1994).








Dunkel, C., & Kerpelman, J. (2006). Possible selves: Theory, research and applications. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (1994). Developing reflective judgment: Understanding and promoting intellectual growth and critical thinking in adolescents and adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.




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Portland fire and rescue station

Fire Service Administration                        

Portland fire and rescue station

Portland fire and rescue station (PF&R) is the largest emergency and fire service provider in Oregon. It delivers in 30 fire stations emergency response services which are located strategically in Portland city. Moreover, each station has a responsibility for particular city parts referred to as fire management area. However, the stations do support each other to ensure operational emergency readiness 24 hours (The city of Portland Oregon, 5).

The PF&F organization has a mandate within its legal boundaries; this includes also the contract services to provide fire, special responses and emergency medical to a wide area in approximation 151.6 square miles with an estimated population of 583,830 residents (The city of Portland Oregon, 5).

Analysis of consequences of collective bargaining to union membership and the management team

PF&F where I work is a union organization. I believe it is a union because the workers have welfare where they can voice their grievances. Furthermore, the workers have a union where their representatives negotiate with the management on behalf of the workers. Chamberlain et al (67) defines Collective bargaining is a negotiation process between the representatives of the union and the management with main purpose to arrive at mutually accepted working conditions and wages for employees. Different methods can be applied in the process of bargaining but the outcome desired is usually mutual acceptance by management and labor of a collective bargaining agreement.

Successful positive relationship between the labor and the management should dialogue for better terms for the workers. Furthermore, there should be goodwill between the management and the labor and full commitment to implementation of the negotiation outcomes (Grant et al, 245).

Collective bargaining helps the members to voice their grievances to the management and prevents victimization of the employees. Furthermore, to the management, it helps them communicate to the employees generally, include them in management, emend decisions through their representatives.

According to Morris (167), collective bargaining can reduce production in the company if the negotiation is not productive. Furthermore, it can lead to chaos in the organization if the workers are not organized and are rowdy.

Determination of the applicability of the principled negotiations and the identification of steps for the attributes to be in place for principled negotiation to work in PF&F

As one of the workers of PF&F, I believe principled negotiations will work for the company. The company has been using positional negotiation. According to Herrick et al (208), positional negotiation operates on the basis of trying to get the other side to agree and accept your view point while principled negotiation always starts from assumption that all the sides have things they desire to accomplish and finding a solution that can help all the sides in achieving their goals is possible.

I believe the following steps can be applied by the workers and the coworkers in PF&F to help the organization apply different attributes and work with the principled negotiations:

  • Interests

Understanding by both negotiating sides that they have some differing interest is the first step in a principled negotiation. This is also the main reason why the both parties are on the table negotiating. Understanding what the negotiating groups want will help the union use the knowledge to realize the desired outcome (Chamberlain, 84).

  • Options

Although the negotiating groups have their own solutions they prefer, there exist different outcomes that can work for both sides. It is imperative for both sides to find as many as possible and to determine the best. Grant et al (246) adds that examining them from the other perspective to determine their suitability is advisable. Furthermore, creativity helps in finding other negotiation options.

  • Alternatives

The unions of the PF&F should always go for negotiations with plan B. Having plan B enables unions negotiate from a greater strength position because they are able to make comparison to any negotiated solution to the plan and leave the negotiation if it is not better.

  • Legitimacy

Success in any negotiation depends largely on the group’s ability to persuade the other group to see the issue their way. This can be done is having a legitimate standards that the labor union can use to show the management that they are being reasonable. The PF&F labor union can prepare these standards before going for a negotiation to them persuasive ammunition (Morris et al, 317).

  • Communication

The labor union of PF&F should learn the skills of communicating with the management. These include how the representatives talk, to use of slides and notes. Moreover, they should engage in active demonstration of listening (Herrick et al, 186).

  • Relationship

It is good for the company’s labor union to engage in principles, reasonable negotiation that will help maintain a good relationship with the management. As Chamberlain (96) explains, when the strength of this relationship grows, the union will be able to negotiate with the management based on goodwill that has been in existence.

  • Commitment

According to Grant et al (220) a successful negotiation ends with all the sides pledging a commitment to act on the settlement negotiated. Moreover, commitment is significant throughout the negotiation process and commences with commitment to willingly negotiate. Morris et al (287) suggests that  as the management and the labor union  work to commit to place and time of negotiation, the manner and who to do what in the negotiation , they create towards final settlement a positive momentum.

Communication network

PF&F has a network of five fire stations in Oregon. The fire stations are found in Old Town, Parkrose, Northwest Pearl District, Portland state university and Hillsdale. Furthermore, it has a volunteer organization (The city of Portland Oregon, 5).

PF&F furthermore has a strong network of communication. The organization has gateway senses and wireless networks and seamless switch networks that provide reliable mobile communications. The gateway has created mobile hot spots that enable variety of devices around and in the vehicle to seamlessly connect. The city of Portland Oregon (5) expounds that that the gateway reduces cost of communication as it allows multiple data devices in an accident scene and vehicle to share single connection of a network. It also provides 911 to be called during emergency.

PF&F Company can use non emergency communication that can improve performance of the company. First of all, the company should adopt notification for the community of Portland. This free notification service can update the community of the organizations improvements and teach the community safety tips. Secondly, the organization can alert people through cell phones, email, text messages and landline phones such as VoIP. However, the residents of Port Lands need first to register their contacts into the system. Thirdly, the organization can organize forums for the community where they exchange and interact (Herrick et al, 298).

Concepts to improve the performance of the personnel manager

In my supervisory role as a personnel manager in the fire station, I have learnt different concepts that believe will help me improve my performance. The first concept is setting and communicating clearly standards of performance and expectations. Doing observation and providing the feedback and doing appraisals .this will enable the personnel manager to achieve excellent results by managing the employees (Chamberlain, 89).

Secondly, in beginning the process, the manager and the employee should collaborate on performance standard development. The manager should develop a comprehensive performance plan that directs efforts of employees towards achievement of specific results, to support growth of organization in addition to professional growth of the employees (Grant et al, 263).

Thirdly, another concept for performance improvement is discussion of objectives and goals for the whole year, provision of framework to enable the employees get results through mutual feedback and coaching (Morris et al, 215).

The fourth concept is appreciating the performance of the employees at the end of the period of rating. The appraising should be done against existing standards. Furthermore, new goals should be established together to be used in the next rating period. At this level is also important for the personnel manager to interact with the employees (Herrick et al, 276).


Work cited

Chamberlain, Neil W, and James W. Kuhn. Collective Bargaining. New York: McGraw-Hill,      1965. Print.

Grant, Nancy K, and David H. Hoover. Fire Service Administration. Quincy, Mass: National       Fire Protection Association, 1994. Print.

Morris, Richard B. Labor and Management. New York: New York times, 1973. Print.

Herrick, Neal Q. Joint Management and Employee Participation: Labor and Management at the Crossroads. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990. Print.

The city of Portland Oregon: Fire and Rescue: always ready always there. Oregon 2013.



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Globalization Case study

Executive summary

The essay has discussed the background information about India where it has elaborated on her demographic information, economic status, legal systems and political status. Furthermore, some of the reasons why India is suitable for investing have been discussed. Furthermore, the essay has reviewed the political economy of India, which is the legal, economic and political systems and critically discussed India’s attractiveness for foreign direct investment. Political economy has analyzed the benefits, risks and costs of the legal, economic and political systems before giving some recommendations.












Table of Contents

  1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………..4
  2. Political Economy Analysis……………………………………………………..4

2.1 Political systems…………………………………………………….5

2.2 Economic systems…………………………………………………..6

2.3 Legal systems……………………………………………………….7

  1. Recommendations……………………………………………………………….8
  2. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………8
  3. References………………………………………………………………………10










India is situated in Asia and is the seventh largest country globally by area. Moreover, there are more than 1.2 billion people in India which makes it the second country that is most populous. The economy of India is ranked at eleventh largest globally by nominal GDP (Demography of India: Part 1, 1998). Furthermore, by purchasing power parity, it is the third largest. The Indian society is multi ethic, multi lingual and pluralist. The Indian republic is governed by federal constitution under a parliamentary system of 28 states (MacDonald, 2009). India is a good investment site because of the maximum benefits, minimal costs and risks in her economy. Furthermore, the country balances her political, economical and legal factors well making it conducive for business. The essay will analyze the political economy of India by comparing the political, legal and economic systems of India. Moreover, it will give recommendations and finally conclude with critical discussion of factors that make India attractive for foreign direct investment.


Political Economy Analysis

Political economy is the use of how the economic methods and theory influences the political ideology. It is the interplay between politics, law, economics and how different institutions develop in different economic and social systems, such as communism, socialism and capitalism (Mill & Ashley, 2005).Furthermore, it analyzes how the public policies are created and implemented. Walker (2008) pointed out that since different groups and individuals have different interest in the manner an economy or a country should be developed, political economy covers a broad spectrum of competing interest. Moreover, it involves application of game theory, since competing groups for power and finite resources must decide the course of action will produce the most beneficial outcome.

The significance of using political economy in analyzing India is to evaluate worthiness of India as an investment destination for international businesses and investors.

2.1 Political System


Citizens of India are often mobilized in social groups; that are religion, community or caste, during election times to give them collective electoral power (Lee-Warner, 2006). Moreover, until now, subordinate social groups have emerged to be politically relevant at the state level. This is a welcomed expansion of political democracy and equality in India.


The Indian society is heterogeneous leading to the “collective action” problem. This hampers decisions and actions that need to be taken collectively. Furthermore, the proliferation of regional and small parties in the coalition government have meant catering for particularistic demands, this overrides coordination of the long term goals in the country (Guha & Raghuraman, 2007). Additionally, vital economic issues in India do not get salience in mobilization of the electorate, and this poses as a risk.


According to Vidyarthi (1997), in India it is difficult and costly to agree on a goal, coordinate and get actions done to achieve a goal because the population is heterogeneous. Moreover, it is costly to the country when specific leaders perceived to be upholding the dignity of a marginalized caste group may be reelected even if their policies has resulted to negative implications to the country.

2.2 Economic System


One of the benefits of economic system in India is that businessmen, professionals and salary earners constitute the heads of approximately 22% of households (McClellan, 2010).This is a significant percentage that drives the Indian economy. Furthermore, according to Ghosh (2013), the economy of India is liberated but the government controls assets, production and employment in the majority of the non-agricultural organized sectors.



One of the risks of the economic system of India is unequal wealth distribution. The regional governments are also increasingly becoming fiscal dependent on central government (Banerjee, 2004). The increased regional competition and economic liberalization has increased the disparity between backward and economically advanced states


Poor infrastructure has hindered economic growth in India and this is costly to the Indian economy. Moreover, substantial investment in public infrastructure takes a long time to fructify (Singh et al, 1998). Another cost to the economic system of India is that some regional governments are catering for different particularistic demands from different parties. This makes them to be near fiscal bankrupt (Ghosh, 2013).

2.3 Legal System


One of the benefits of legal systems in India is the fragmentation of the states gives the central state more autonomy. The state over the years has accumulated great power in direct regulation and ownership of the economy. Moreover, India has been powerful in its interventionist and regulatory role (Bhansali, 1992).

Another benefit is the decentralization and federalism of the resources which has made the government more responsive to the needs of the local. Moreover, the 73rd and the subsequent 74th amendment of the constitution in the early 1990s gave some potency to decentralization movement below the state level, up to the gram panchayats (Pandey, 1993)


One potential risk of the legal systems in India is the astute political leadership of the country which can play off the groups against each other and earn special privileges and powers. Moreover, there are tradeoffs between accountability and credibility in state affairs which is risky


The fragmentation of different groups in India with each group pulling in different direction means that the state policies are buffeted around and the economic reforms are halted and hesitated (Bhansali, 1992). This is costly to the country. Moreover, inequality and heterogeneity in India has made it difficult and costly in coordinating long term policies.

Major Indian states are large and the governments are distant from the local people. Furthermore, few administrative functions and fewer independent finance sources have been decentralized to the local governments, making the legal systems costly.




  1. The state government should reorient its functions away from control and ownership of business enterprises towards more on social basic services, education and health for the poor.
  2. As much as the state is the major financier of these services, it should contract private-public partnerships or the private sectors to provide some services. It should not be managed bureaucratically.
  3. Political awareness and land reforms in the states should enhanced to prevent capture and control of the local governments by oligarchic local elites
  4. The regional governments should also be made to be more responsible fiscally and accountable at the panchayat level. This will deepen democracy and weaken local oligarchy powers, expand education and devolve finances
  5. Regular auditing and making media and local NGO’s as local governments watchdogs will also eradicate corruption


The country’s overall attractiveness as a potential investment or potential market site for an international business largely depends on how the country balances the benefits, risks and costs that are associated with doing business in that particular country (Rajan, 2009).  India is attractive and is a good investment and market site. The overall attractiveness of India as direct foreign investments is because of her three key pillars; the benefits, costs and risks of the country.

Kobayashi-Hillary (2005) indicated that the long term monetary benefits of the international businesses in doing business in India make the country attractive. This is because of her large market size, her purchasing power which reflected the wealth of the consumers, and the future consumer’s wealth.

Cost wise, there are number of legal, economic and political factors that determine the running costs of doing business in India. India is politically stable, has a vibrant and improving economy, and has infrastructures and other supporting businesses. This makes India attractive as an investment destination cost wise. For the legal factors, India has local regulations and laws that liberalize the market. There are no strict standards for businesses and in protecting the intellectual property rights (Nagesh et al, 1998).

Risk wise, India has stable political, legal and economic factors that minimize risks of doing businesses. According to Acharya (1998), there are minimal political forces that can cause drastic changes in the business environment of the country and affect adversely the profits of the international investors. Furthermore, India has a growing business environment that cannot hurt the goals and profits of an international business enterprise. The legal factors are also stable to protect firms from stealing intellectual property rights and breaking of contracts.



Acharya, S. (1998). Investing in India. Basingstoke: Macmillan Business.

Banerjee, K. (2004). Regional political parties in India. Delhi: B.R. Pub. Corp.

Bhansali, S. R. (1992). Legal system in India. Jaipur, India: University Book House.

Demography of India: Part 1. (1998). New Delhi: Library of Congress Office.

Ghosh, M. (2013). Liberalization, growth and regional disparities in India. New Delhi: Springer India.

Guha, T. P., & Raghuraman, S. (2007). Divided we stand: India in a time of coalitions. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.

Kobayashi-Hillary, M. (2005). Outsourcing to India: The Offshore Advantage. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Lee-Warner, W. (2006). The citizen of India. London: Macmillan.

MacDonald, J. R. (2009). The government of India. New York: Huebsch.

McClellan, G. S. (2010). India. New York: Wilson.

Mill, J. S., & Ashley, W. J. (2005). Principles of political economy: With some of their applications to social philosophy. New York: A. M. Kelley, bookseller.

Nagesh, K., & Centre for International Management and Development Antwerp. (1998). Liberalization and changing patterns of foreign direct investment: Has India’s relative attractiveness as a host of FDI improved?. Antwerp: CIMDA, University of Antwerp.

Pandey, J. N. (1993). Constitutional law of India: Incorporating the Panchayati Raj and Nagarpalika Constitution 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts, 1992. Allahabad: Central Law Agency.

Rajan, R. S. (2009). Monetary, investment, and trade issues in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Singh, K. P., & National Institute of Management Technology. (1998). Infrastructure in India. Ghaziabad: National Institute of Management Technology in association with Excel Books, New Delhi.

Vidyarthi, L. P., & All India Seminar on Tribal and Rural Leadership in India. (1997). Leadership in India. Bombay: Asia Pub. House.

Walker, F. A. (2008). Political economy. New York: Henry Holt and Co.



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Emergency Planning

Emergency planning

According to Emergency Management Institute (2003), emergency planning provides a definite plan to help in major emergencies. It provides guidance during emergency and help in discovering hazardous conditions that are unrecognized and would aggravate a situation. Therefore, the planning process highlight deficiencies such as inadequate resources like supplies, personnel and equipment. Additionally, emergency plan shows commitment of the organization to workers safety besides promoting safety awareness (Perry & Lindell, 2007).

Overall objective of emergency plan

The emergency plan outlines procedures for facing sudden unexpected situations. The objective is to minimize possible consequences by:

  • Preventing injuries and fatalities.
  • Reducing damage to equipment, stocks and building.
  • Accelerating normal operations resumptions (Wuorinen & Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 1986).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , United States & McKing Consulting Corp (2008) suggested that the potential environmental impacts and the community should be considered in the plan. Plan development begins with assessment of the vulnerabilities.

Vulnerability Assessment

Emergencies are sudden events but prediction to their occurrence can be done with some certainty degree. The initial step is to find hazards that pose a threat. This can be gotten from occupational experiences and past incidents (Lescota & Westcott Communications, 1993).

Series of decisions and events that should be given consideration

According to Jourdan & California (1994), after identifying the hazards, the major events that are possible should then be itemized:

  • Evacuations
  • Sequential events for instance fire explosion
  • Causalities
  • Plant infrastructure damage
  • Loss of vital documents/records
  • Work disruption
  • Equipment damage

The required actions based on the events are determined. For instance:

  • Sound the alert
  • Declare emergency
  • Close key shutoffs
  • Evacuate
  • Start rescue operations, call for aid
  • Fight fire.
  • Attend to casualties (Handmer & Dovers, 2013).

Lastly, location of the resources needed should be considered:

  • Auxiliary equipments for communication
  • Medical supplies
  • Respirators
  • Power generators
  • Mobile equipment
  • Radiation and chemical detection equipment
  • Firefighting equipment
  • Protective Clothing
  • Rescue equipment
  • Ambulance
  • Trained personnel (Emergency Management Institute , 2003).

Elements of the emergency plan

According to Perry & Lindell  (2007), the elements in the emergency plan include:

  • All possible consequences, emergencies, written procedures, required actions and the available resources.
  • Detailed personnel list including their responsibilities and duties, home telephone numbers.
  • Floor plans.
  • Large scale maps detailing service conduits and evacuation routes.

Wuorinen & Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (1986) pointed out that the plan should give the staff written instructions on their emergency duties. The parts of the emergency plan include:


It is the purpose of the plan in brief; that is, to minimize property damage and human injury in an emergency. It further specifies the staffs who implement the plan.


An individual should be trained and appointed as coordinator of emergency. They are key in an emergency site to ensure efficient and prompt action to reduce loss. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States & McKing Consulting Corp (2008) pointed out those specific responsibilities, duties, resources and authority must be defined clearly. Some of the assigned responsibilities include:

  • Emergency reporting
  • Emergency plan activation
  • Assumption of overall command
  • Communication establishment
  • Alerting staff
  • Evacuation order
  • Alerting other external agencies
  • Confirmation of evacuation completion
  • Alerting the population outside of the possible risk
  • External aid request
  • Activities of various groups coordination
  • Advising the casualties relatives
  • Medical aid provision
  • Closing of the emergency shut offs
  • sounding the all clear
  • Briefing the media




Where I researched the subject matter expert of law enforcement

In the internet on law enforcement and Subject Matter Experts

Interviewer recruited

Chief William smith E. (ret)

His employer and his job title

Chief Smith is employed at Lake Worth, police department York FL. His job title is an Executive Subject Matter Expert (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).

His qualification as a Subject Matter Expert

Chief Smith has a vast of experience and that qualifies him as an Executive Subject Matter Expert. In York Pennsylvanian and Lake Worth, Florida he has served as chief of police. In his 34 years career in law enforcement, he has experience as a chief for 16 years (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).

On his educational qualifications, he has a Master of Science degree in Criminal Justice Administration/ Human Organization Science from Villanova University. Furthermore, he has Bachelor of Science degree from York college of PA in Police Science (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).

Furthermore, smith is a graduate of the

  • Criminal Justice Executive Institute of Law Enforcement Of Florida Department.
  • FBI National Academy, 195th
  • Leadership Program of University Of Virginia at the Weldon Cooper Institute for Public Service (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).

Chief Smith has an extensive technical expertise, experience and education in the areas of:

  • Organizational culture.
  • Policy development.
  • Sexual harassment prevention and policy.
  • Accreditation by national and state.
  • Performance evaluation.
  • Labor relations.
  • Grievances procedures.
  • Collective bargaining.
  • Criminal analysis (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).

As a subject matter expert, he strengthens assessment exercises and exams in the areas of

  • Media relations
  • Community policing
  • Gang investigations
  • Patrol operations
  • All law enforcement management and supervision topics
  • Tactical response to crisis (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).

Furthermore, Chief Williams instructional experience includes in- service training and police academy courses on different subjects both in Pennsylvania and Florida. Currently, he is certified by Training Commission and Law Enforcement Criminal Justice Standards of Florida Department as a Law Enforcement Officers Instructor and Police Officer in Pennsylvania State (Batten & Gale Group, 2011).

Lessons learned from research on realm of law enforcement

The careers in law enforcement are highlighted by adventures and ventures. To become an expert, it takes persistence, money, time of more than just being merely a police officer. Generally, an expert is defined as an individual with more knowledge than an average person (Gray, 2010). Oklahoma (2007) asserts that a position of law enforcement does not in all areas guarantee expertise. Bejar (1981) suggested that an expert should always be ready to provide a statement of qualification, resume and information on all certificates and degrees.

According to Ohio State University., & Hamilton (1977), for one to increase or maintain skills in a certain area to become a Subject Matter Expert, he /she  should enroll in appropriate seminars and trainings, write scholarly articles, present at conferences to give the resume a depth. On the other hand, the trickier is the Statement of Qualifications in which the expert clearly articulates the reasons they possess the expertise to come up with opinions in a court of law. To expand ones expertise, one should investigate and learn everything currently important in the enforcement of law. This can be done by attending conferences, reviewing periodicals, watching podcasts (McCain & American Society for Training and Development, 1999).

Similarly, one can join a professional associations as well as finding a mentor. Mentors can be found in a professional association, ones structure of work, seminar, training and in graduate or college-level educational experience. On can gain experience by offering assistance to the mentor who may have a large project. Furthermore, they provide support; career advice and assist in making one becomes a recognized expert (Smiderle, 1993).


Emergency Management Institute (U.S.). (2003). Emergency planning. Emmitsburg, Md.: U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management Institute.

Perry, R. W., & Lindell, M. K. (2007). Emergency planning. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Wuorinen, V., & Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. (1986). Emergency planning. Hamilton, Ont: Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.), United States., & McKing Consulting Corp. (2008). A framework for improving cross-sector coordination for emergency preparedness and response: Action steps for public health, law enforcement, the judiciary, and corrections. Washington, D.C: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance.

Lescota, J., & Westcott Communications. (1993). Emergency preparedness & law enforcement. Carrollton, Tex.: Westcott Communications.

Jourdan, K. R., & California. (1994). Law enforcement guide for emergency operations planning. Sacramento, Calif: Governor’s Office of Emergency Services, Law Enforcement Division.

Handmer, J. W., & Dovers, S. (2013). Handbook of disaster policies and institutions: Improving emergency management and climate change adaptation. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge/Earthscan.




Batten, D., & Gale Group. (2011). Gale encyclopedia of American law. Detroit, Mich: Gale.

Gray, W. (2010). Business change: The roles of change agents and subject matter experts in organization change and much more– : 101 world class expert facts, hints, tips and advice on change management. S.l: Emereo Pty Ltd.

Oklahoma. (2007). What are subject matter experts?. Oklahoma City: Dept. of Human Services.

Bejar, I. I. (1981). Subject matter experts’ assessment of item statistics. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Ohio State University., & Hamilton, J. B. (1977). Use subject matter experts to present information. Athens, Ga: American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials.

McCain, D. V., & American Society for Training and Development. (1999). Creating training courses when you’re not a trainer: Quick course design, development, and delivery for subject matter experts, managers, and other nontrainers. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training & Development.

Smiderle, D. (1993). The impact of discretion on rating differences among subject matter experts. Ottawa: National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada.

Sullivan, L. E. (2005). Encyclopedia of law enforcement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

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Police and Law Enforcement

There are various roles in which the agencies of the local law enforcement take part daily. The functions, duties and responsibilities of local agencies of local law enforcement exist to provide routine patrol to the communities within their jurisdiction, maintain records, provide emergency services and conduct criminal investigations among others (Cohen, 2006p.56). The state law enforcement agencies have different responsibilities. The state police have a duty to keep the highways of the state, rural areas and other areas under their state safe. They also have a duty to keep the motor vehicle inspected as per the countries regulations. Maguire (2003p.89) pointed out that the state law enforcement agencies conduct community initiatives and public relations, criminal investigations

The municipal agency police are found in densely populated areas compared to the county agencies. The rural policing operates in the rural areas and they can run from large to very tiny. Because of this, the equipment, benefits and pay differ largely from one agency to the other. Cohen, R. (2006p.60) observed that the sheriff’s department performs the same things like the municipal police department. However, the sheriff department has a larger jurisdiction

The primary purpose of the patrol police is to protect and to preserve property and life in the community. Additionally, the patrol police protect the citizens, deteriorate crime because of their visibility hence prevent potential crime. Moreover, they enable the departments to find out law breaking cases and respond to help calls. According to Maguire (2003p.102), patrol police build contact list in the streets that are useful during the investigations.

The patrol officers are the first responders in an emergency, and assist in accidents or even emergencies cases. They may also be called to give direction to traffics when train or traffic signals for crossing fail.

In the contemporary society, the roles of the police are to arrest any individual they believe have broken the laws or have caused harm to people. Moreover, Cohen (2006 p.86) pointed out that the police officers control and prevent conducts that are recognized widely as property or life threatening. The police officers in the contemporary society also aid individuals who are in physical harm danger, such as the violent attack victims.

According to Maguire (2003p.47), the police officers facilitate movement f vehicles and people and assist people who cannot care for themselves, the addicted, the intoxicated, the old, physically disabled, the mentally ill and the young to solve their conflicts. Furthermore, the police officers identify potential problems of becoming more critical problems. They also create and maintain security feeling in the communities, in addition to keeping law and order.

According to Cohen (2006p.112), one of the issues affecting the police departments today are the perception of the public of law enforcement to try and support the families and the communities at a low pay. Operating expenses are high and there needed to train constantly to meet the court decisions guidelines.

Maguire (2003) pointed out that the police departments are also hugely understaffed. However, despite the understaffing, the government fails to meet the departments’ recruitment quota. Moreover, another main issue faced by the police departments is money. Scarcity of money in certain departments and regions limits delivery of services to the citizens.



Cohen, R. (2006). Working with police agencies. New York: Human Sciences Press.

Maguire, E. R. (2003). Organizational structure in American police agencies: Context, complexity, and control. Albany: State University of New York Press.




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McGough’s poems;“Streemin” “Why People Are a Bit Nuts in the Head” and “Nooligan”


Poetry is a compiled literary work whereby special focus gets given to the expression of ideas and feelings by application of rhythm and style that is distinct. Poetry gets written and put across to convey issues, concepts, ideas in an imaginative and a vivid way. The essay will discuss how this gets achieved from McGough’s poems. The issues, concepts, ideas in the essay include how the student’s grading at school is unfair, artificial and arbitrary, the satire on the patriotic people, and the satire on the delinquent juveniles and their antisocial behaviors. The essay will discuss three McGough’s poems; that is “Streemin” “Why People Are a Bit Nuts in the Head” and “Nooligan” The poems of McGough are humorous, satirical and light. His efficient and successful poetry style allows personal and friendly approach to serious social and political issues sometimes. Satire gets used to ridicule, expose and highlight human, political and social stupidities. However, in the cases of McGoughs poems, the satirist aims to entertain, educate and change the situation through the humor.

The manner in which students graded at schools is unfair, artificial and arbitrary. This issue is portrayed in the “Streemin” poem as it explains how the similarity of people upon their death and the school students based on their ability in academics, and this degrades their self esteem sense and narrows their chances in life. The “Streaming” poem gives a comment on how the school grading of the students is inappropriate. According to McGough, upon death of people, there exist no differences. Moreover, he uses colloquial language and words that got spelt wrong to show that the narrator academic ability gets limited and is in the “bottom streme”. The speaker persuades effectively the readers because having “divishns” is ironical during a lifetime when at the end they are the same. McGough’s thoughts got expressed in the “poem of streaming” of getting schools to be divided to separate students according to diverse academic ability. By using the voice of the students that are not bright, McGough mocks the streaming system by indicating that, in the cemetery, people are all the same.

In the McGoughs poem, “Why People Are a Bit Nuts in the Head”, the narrator satirizes the patriotic people by making emphasis on the importance of lives to people. The poem got written using the colloquial language and in the first person. For instance, the colloquial statement such as “have your belly shot away” persuades successfully the readers to try and do re-evaluation of their attitudes towards war. This gets substantiated by the argument of the narrator “lives are good for you” and giving examples of life enjoyment, such as going out with girls. Moreover, the comment about going with girls which is humorous targets a particular age group as this is the age bracket of the people who has the highest probability of getting sent to war. Similarly, by using the graphic imagery like “your seeds over the field”, the narrator persuades the readers and the entire audience to have a belief that, after all, life is good. This makes the poem to be more friendly and engaging when communicating with the audience and the readers. “Seeds spreading over the field” is a very strong image that reinforces the earlier argument that in reality, “patriots are bit nuts in the head”

In the poem of Nooligan, McGrough makes a satire on the juveniles who are delinquent and their behaviors that are anti- social. From his argument, he comments on their destructive actions that are stupid and their lack of intelligence when they behave in such ways. He further implies that just as the way they behave, the hooligans are stupid. From the poem, some words got spelt wrong to give them similarity in conversational context pronunciation. For instance, the words such as a “nooligan” “a nard” and “ead” got used to mean “hooligan” “a hard” and “head”. Furthermore, the speaker gets constructed as an ignorant person from the choices of vocabulary words, which are mostly, simple. Additionally, the narrator uses the pronoun “me” in place of “my” which is grammatically incorrect. The use of the pronoun further reinforces and cements the idea of a hooligan as an individual who is uneducated comparatively, or a person who has rejected any form of education. McGough makes a repetition of the first line in every stanza to emphasize that the narrator is a proud hooligan indeed. Furthermore, it suggests a limited and a simplistic view of the world and self. Different aspects of hooliganism get told in every stanza that is undesirable and antisocial. From the ending of every stanza which is similar, it shows how things are when compared to how the hooligan would desire to believe, and pretends or imagines they are.


In conclusion, McGough’s poems that apply the effective and successful poetry style allow personal and friendly approach to serious social and political issues sometimes. “Streemin” poem highlights on how the schools grading of the students is inappropriate. “Why People Are a Bit Nuts in the Head” poem satirizes the patriotic people by making emphasis on the importance of lives to people. Finally, the “Nooligan” poem satirizes the juvenile’s antisocial behaviors and their delinquency. By using the first person speakers and the colloquial language, McGough through his poems of “streaming”, “Why People Are a Bit Nut in the Head” and “Nooligan”, delivers his point of views and messages efficiently. His engaging approach simplifies and makes it easy for the readers to digest the messages portrayed easily and understand his persuasions. He persuades people to focus more closely on social issues than the other poets who are radical.


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Crafting Personal Entrepreneurship Strategy

 Part 1- Your profile of the past

  1. Step I: Do an examination on your preferences

These are what make you have the energy. These could be things from either leisure or work that gives you personal satisfaction, energy and sense of enjoyment. On the other hand, look for what takes away your personal energy and why? They include things that create personal dissatisfaction, discontent, anxiety, motivation and draw away your energy. After listing the items, rank them from most to the least (Timmons et al, 2007).

You should then describe how you would like to spend your ideal month in 20-30 years. The description should factor the desired work style, lifestyle, friends, income among others, and make a comment on what attracts or repels you on the ideal existence. Collins et al, 1992) adds that you should then list the desired attributes of the business you want to join and the attributes of the businesses you do not want to join. Furthermore, you should also discuss any issues, patterns, conclusions and insights that have come up.

According to Wickham (2006), the factors to be considered during the descriptions are location, work style, lifestyle, standard of living, personal development, prestige and status.

  1. Step II: Do an examination on your history

Floyd (2005) suggests that you should make a list of the activities that:

  1. In the past have provided financial support such as full time or part time businesses
  2. Have contributed to your well being
  3. You have done on your own such as creating something

You should then discuss why you got involved in the listed activities and what influenced each of your decisions specifically, what you learned about self employment, yourself and managing money and people. Timmons et al (2007) points out that you should discuss your work experience under full time basis, besides giving a description of the specific tasks you were responsible, skills you applied, the number of people you were in charge of and you success status.

Moreover, discuss why you were involved in the employments listed and what influenced your decisions specifically, the lessons you learned about yourself, managing of people, about employment and on making money.

Collins et al (1992) suggest that you should also discuss also other activities you have participated in such as sports. What were the lessons learned and what is their applicability to an entrepreneur’s life? Furthermore, if you have ever quitted, relocated jobs or got fired in any job, indicate with the reasons, the circumstances and the lessons learned with the differences made.

Similarly, among your mentors who have mostly influenced you, do any of them operate a personal business or run independent professions? How do you view their roles and them? And how have they influenced you? Finally, discuss what you learned from them and also about self employment and what appeal or repel you such as their reward, risks, entry strategies and tradeoffs.

  1. Part 2: Present profile
  1. Step I: Do an examination on your entrepreneurial mind.

Examine your knowhow, behaviors and attitudes. Wickham (2006) suggest that you should rank yourself as either strongest or weakest in determination and commitment, opportunity obsession, tolerance of ambiguity, risk and uncertainty, self reliance, creativity, adaptability, motivation to excel and leadership

  1. Step II: Do an examination on the requirements on entrepreneurial role

Rank yourself where you fit as either strongest or weakest in the following roles: accommodation to venture, stress, values, ethics and integrity.

  1. Step III: Do an examination on your management competencies

Rank your competencies and skills as either weakest or strongest; marketing, operations or productions, finance, administration, interpersonal or team and law.

  1. Part3: Get constructive feedback

This part is an organized way to get constructive feedback by getting evaluation from a designated person from your answers for questions in part one and two. The stage is optional and if you choose not to get, move to part four.

  1. Part4: putting all together
  1. step I:

Reflect on the previous responses and feedback you have received informally or solicited. Such as form friends, class discussions and parents

  1. Step II: do assessment on your entrepreneurial strategy
  1. What have you factored in about you and entrepreneurship?
  2. How do your aims fit entrepreneurship requirements especially the heavy work load, total immersion, sacrifices and long term commitment?
  3. What anticipation on specific conflicts do you expect between your values and aims and the entrepreneurship demands?
  4. Compare your fit and entrepreneurial mind with your management competencies and  entrepreneurial role demands with other entrepreneurs you know
  5. What are assessment implications of your entrepreneurial strategy whether you should venture into the opportunity?


Timmons, J. A., & Spinelli, S. (2007). New venture creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st          century. Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Collins, J. C., & Lazier, W. C. (1992). Beyond entrepreneurship: Turning your business into an   enduring great company. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wickham, P. A. (2006). Strategic entrepreneurship. Harlow, England: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Floyd, S. W. (2005). Innovating strategy process. Malden, MA: BlackweLl Pub.










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Periodized Training Program


Tennis is an outdoor sport in Kenyatta University that has many competitions yearly. The program is designed for an athlete who is in the university team. The program is designed for the end year championships that include inter universities, national and regional championships.

Joseph is a 20 year old Kenyatta University student who has been doing cardiovascular training since the age of 16 years, in addition to strength or flexibility training. He is healthy since he has no medical problems and he is not under any medication. He also has appropriate composition of the body and is highly motivated. The designed program will be helpful in his tennis championship sport.

The total training period of the program will be the macrocycle and it will have training phases. The training phases or the mesocycles of this program will be divided into a period of four weeks or one month. The microcycles within the months will be one week each. The athlete’s individual training workout or session will represent one cycle smaller than the microcyle. From the above description, the training program of Joseph will be like the table below

Training Phases (Mesocycles) Preparatory Phase Competitive Phase Transition








  1. To acquire and improve general physical training capacity
  2. To improve the athletes biomotor abilities required for tennis (agility,coordination,balance,flexibility,endurance,power,mobility,strength and speed)
  3. To master skills

The preparatory phase will be characterized with bulk of training volume for the athlete to adapt. The phase will be divided into two phases; the General and The Specific Preparation. The main objective of the general preparatory phase of the program will be to establish high level of physical conditioning and to promote further training. The General Physical Preparedness (GPP) will be emphasized through general exercises that are unique to the tennis (aerobic endurance/general strength).

The specific preparatory sub phase will be devoted to specific movements and exercises of the tennis patterns. The training will become more specific with the training volume still high. This stage will also represent the transitional shift to the competitive season. Mastery of skills will be the focal point of the specific sub phase.

  1. General preparation

Conditioning- this phase will be to develop the required physical qualities for the high level competition. The interval work will be increasing gradually from 25-60 minutes, 3 days per week averagely. The volume and intensity patterns will be varied

Strength training-resistance training that is tennis specific will be done 2-3 days per week. Interval training will be incorporated with varying patterns across the week.

  1. Specific preparation

Conditioning: it will begin by incorporating high speed intervals to train the body to adapt to the buildup of the waste products and the high energy use patterns that are associated with situation of the game

Interval runs will be performed with the athlete (forward, backward, and side to side) for 3 days per week. The duration will start at 5 minutes and progress up to 20 minutes by the end of the 3 days per week\additionally, the work: recovery duty cycles will start at 1:3 and then progress to 2:1. For instance, 10s work: 30s recovery and this will progress to 10s work: 5s recovery

Plyometric and speed drills will be added in aerobically based intervals

Strength training- will be continued twice per week, concentrating on the sport-specific higher velocity lifts

Sport specific- during this phase the play will include competitive matches




  1. To perfect techniques to enable athletes performance at the highest level
  2. To extend improvement of the biomotor abilities
  3. To maintain the General Physical Preparedness

This phase will focus on skill perfection of the athlete, strategic planning and tactical maneuvers. General physical preparedness and conditioning will be maintained. The competitive phase will also be divided into two; the precompetitive sub phase and the main competition sub phase. The pre competitive sub phase will have the unofficial competitions and exhibitions to evaluate the skills of the athlete.

The main competitor phase will be to maximize the potential of the athlete and facilitate exceptional performances during competitions.

  1. Pre –competition

Conditioning-this phase will feature agility and speed drills that are specific to on court performance.

Strength training-resistance training will decline from 2-1 per week and will be explosive in nature. Rubber tubing and medicine ball will be used for the biomedically specific resistance/speed work

Sport specific-the on court work will concentrate on execution and strategy in addition to playing at more competitive level

Taper –recovery periods will be slowly be increased and the volume of work decreased across the duration cycle




  1. Competition

Conditioning-agility, speed and quickness drills will be applied and will last 15-20 minutes per day

Strength training- resistance training will be decline continuously dropping light weight a single day, explosive lifts. The on court points will concentrate on high-intensity points with limited formal play

Taper –all resistance trainings will be ended at this point. Light on court work only and limited points for honing the skills will be used.




  1. To restore the central nervous system
  2. To analyze the past program of training with the results
  3. To map the coming annual plan

This phase will not mean a period of detraining but it will be a period of active rest. The training volume and intensity will be reduced gradually. Total passive rest will be allowed if the athlete will have an injury. This phase will take a maximum of 5 weeks

The table of the training program is below



Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12


phases (Meso cycles)

Preparatory 1 Competitive 1 T 1 Preparatory 2 Competitive 2 T 2


Specific preparatory PC Competitive U M Gen prep Specific preparatory PC Competitive U  



T1-Transition phase for two weeks

T2-Transition phase 4-5 weeks long

PC-pre competition, or matches, exhibition games and competitions

U-Unloading or tapering for the major competitions of the year

M-Maintenance of 40-50% of the previous training load

The distribution of the training load of each of training will be as follows

Cycle Volume Intensity Over-Distance Endurance Tempo Lactate Threshold Vo2 Max
Preparatory Moderate to high Low 60% 30% 5% 5% 0%
Pre-competition   Moderate Moderate to high 55% 25% 5-10% 10-15% 0-10%
Taper Low to moderate Moderate to high 55% 25% 5-10% 10-15% 2-5%
Competition Low to moderate High 55% 20% 5-10% 5-10% 0-5%
Transition Low Low 85% 5-10% 0-5% 0% 0%




Duration- 2 to 4 weeks from mid January to February

Purpose- to recover psychologically and physically from the in season competitive phase. These include a tennis related injuries like muscle fatigue and psychological fatigue

Flexibility- this will be done several times daily and will include warm-up, and cool down

Aerobic conditioning– will utilize cross training that emphasize physical activity in other sports

Strength training- will be done 2 times per week

Other- the athlete will train 2-5 times per week to maintain the desired abilities, develop new goals for the next season and review past season


Duration- 8 weeks from mid February to mid April

Purpose- to develop aerobic base and strength

Flexibility-many times daily and will include warm ups and cool downs

Aerobic conditioning- continuous activity at 70-85% MAX HR, 3-5 times per week for 30 minutes

Strength conditioning- 3 times per week

Other- set future goals and master the seasons calendar, begin learning new tennis skills, increase nutrition knowledge


Duration– 8 weeks from mid April to mid June

Purpose-to increase strength, power and aerobic conditioning, and also begins anaerobic training

Flexibility- several per day, warms and cool downs

Aerobic conditioning-1-2 times per week at 70-85% MAX HR for 30 minutes

Anaerobic conditioning- 2-3 times per week at 85-95% MAX HR

Strength training- 2 to 3 times per week

Plyometrics- 2 times per week

Other-further develop and perfect the tennis skills, continue tennis practice, incorporate skills and sports psychology in the practice sessions


Duration-12 weeks from mid June to mid September

Purpose- peak levels in skills training, emphasis on sport specific training, power, strength and endurance conditioning

Flexibility- many times daily, warm ups and cool downs

Aerobic conditioning- 1 time per week

Anaerobic conditioning-3 to 5 times per week at 95% MAX HR

Strength training- 1 to 2 times per week

Plyometrics- 1 to 2 times per week

Other- refine the tennis skills, choose the best tennis equipments, begin to run through the complete program, apply skills and sport psychology


Duration-12 to 18 weeks from mid September- the inter university, national, and regional championships

Purpose-to maintain power, strength, anaerobic and aerobic conditioning throughout the season

Flexibility-many times per day, warm ups and cools down

Aerobic conditioning-none

Anaerobic conditioning-3 to 4 times per week at 95% MAX HR

Strength training- 2 times per week

Plyometrics- 1 time per week

Other-refines and improves the tennis skills constantly, develop knowledge of nutrition for meals while travelling and the pre- competition, and improve skills of sports psychology for the performance of the program.





Bompa, T. O. (1999). Periodization training for sports. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Brughelli, M., Cronin, J., Levin, G., & Chaouachi, A. (January 01, 2008). Understanding Change of Direction Ability in Sport: A Review of Resistance Training Studies. Sports Medicine, 38, 12, 1045-1063.

Crossley, J. (2012). Personal training: Theory and practice. London: Hodder Education.

Kraemer, W., Ratamess, N., Fry, A., Triplett-McBride, T., Koziris, L., Bauer, J., Lynch, J., … Fleck, S. (January 01, 2000). Influence of Resistance Training Volume and Periodization on Physiological and Performance Adaptations in Collegiate Women Tennis Players. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, 5, 626-633.

Waggoner, R. C., & Army War College (U.S.). (1999). Simultaneous strength and endurance training. Carlisle Barracks, Pa: U.S. Army War College.


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